Background: Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) have been anecdotally reported in the literature as presenting with features of cerebral palsy (CP) or misdiagnosed as 'atypical CP'. A significant proportion is amenable to treatment either directly targeting the underlying pathophysiology (often with improvement of symptoms) or with the potential to halt disease progression and prevent/minimize further damage.
Methods: We performed a systematic literature review to identify all reports of IEMs presenting with CP-like symptoms before 5 years of age, and selected those for which evidence for effective treatment exists.
Results: We identified 54 treatable IEMs reported to mimic CP, belonging to 13 different biochemical categories. A further 13 treatable IEMs were included, which can present with CP-like symptoms according to expert opinion, but for which no reports in the literature were identified. For 26 of these IEMs, a treatment is available that targets the primary underlying pathophysiology (e.g. neurotransmitter supplements), and for the remainder (n = 41) treatment exerts stabilizing/preventative effects (e.g. emergency regimen). The total number of treatments is 50, and evidence varies for the various treatments from Level 1b, c (n = 2); Level 2a, b, c (n = 16); Level 4 (n = 35); to Level 4-5 (n = 6); Level 5 (n = 8). Thirty-eight (57%) of the treatable IEMs mimicking CP can be identified by ready available metabolic screening tests in blood or urine, while the remaining IEMs require more specific and sometimes invasive tests.
Conclusions: Limited by the rare nature of IEMs and incomplete information in the literature, we conclude that (1) A surprisingly large number of IEMs can present with CP symptoms, as 'CP mimics', (2) although individually rare, a large proportion of these diseases are treatable such that neurological damage can either be reversed or prevented, (3) clinician awareness of treatable CP mimics is important for appropriate screening, diagnosis, and early intervention, and (4) systematic studies are required to elucidate the collective frequency of treatable IEMs in CP.