Short communication: determination of potential 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde and 2-furaldehyde compounds in follow-on milks and infant formulas using the high-performance liquid chromatography method

J Dairy Sci. 2015 Feb;98(2):818-22. doi: 10.3168/jds.2014-8761. Epub 2014 Nov 28.


The aim of present study was to determine the levels of potential 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF) and 2-furaldehyde (F) in 109 baby food samples (60 follow-on milks, 49 cereal- and milk-based infant formulas) obtained from different markets in Ankara (Turkey). Potential HMF and F compounds were determined by HPLC. Mean levels (± standard error) of HMF and F of follow-on milk samples were found to be 237.85±18.25 and 9.44±0.39 µg/100mL, respectively. Regarding the infant formulas, mean levels of HMF and F were found to be 905.41±91.94 and 13.22±1.21 µg/100g. As a result, potential HMF was determined in all of the samples; potential F was determined in all the samples except 1. The mean levels of potential HMF and F of infant formulas were higher than mean levels of potential HMF and F of follow-on milks. In addition, HMF and F values of some samples with an imminent expiration date were found to be higher than HMF and F values of the other samples. At present, no limits have been established in the Turkish Food Codex (TFC) for furfural compounds concentrations in infant formula and milks. Establishing limits related to these compounds would be important for protecting the quality of infant foods.

Keywords: 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde; follow-on milk; furfural; infant formula.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Female
  • Furaldehyde / analogs & derivatives*
  • Furaldehyde / analysis*
  • Furaldehyde / isolation & purification
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant Formula / chemistry*
  • Milk / chemistry*
  • Turkey


  • 5-hydroxymethylfurfural
  • Furaldehyde