Gout: a review of nonmodifiable and modifiable risk factors

Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2014 Nov;40(4):581-604. doi: 10.1016/j.rdc.2014.07.002. Epub 2014 Sep 2.


Gout is a common inflammatory arthritis triggered by the crystallization of uric acid within the joints. Gout affects millions worldwide and has an increasing prevalence. Recent research has been carried out to better qualify and quantify the risk factors predisposing individuals to gout. These can largely be broken into nonmodifiable risk factors, such as gender, age, race, and genetics, and modifiable risk factors, such as diet and lifestyle. Increasing knowledge of factors predisposing certain individuals to gout could potentially lead to improved preventive practices. This review summarizes the nonmodifiable and modifiable risk factors associated with development of gout.

Keywords: Diet; Genetics; Gout; Race; Risk factors; Sex.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Diet / statistics & numerical data*
  • Female
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Gout / epidemiology*
  • Gout / genetics
  • Humans
  • Hyperuricemia / epidemiology*
  • Hyperuricemia / genetics
  • Male
  • Obesity / epidemiology*
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors