Do differences in chemical composition of stem and cap of Amanita muscaria fruiting bodies correlate with topsoil type?

PLoS One. 2014 Dec 1;9(12):e104084. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104084. eCollection 2014.


Fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) was investigated using a 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach. The caps and stems were studied separately, revealing different metabolic compositions. Additionally, multivariate data analyses of the fungal basidiomata and the type of soil were performed. Compared to the stems, A. muscaria caps exhibited higher concentrations of isoleucine, leucine, valine, alanine, aspartate, asparagine, threonine, lipids (mainly free fatty acids), choline, glycerophosphocholine (GPC), acetate, adenosine, uridine, 4-aminobutyrate, 6-hydroxynicotinate, quinolinate, UDP-carbohydrate and glycerol. Conversely, they exhibited lower concentrations of formate, fumarate, trehalose, α- and β-glucose. Six metabolites, malate, succinate, gluconate, N-acetylated compounds (NAC), tyrosine and phenylalanine, were detected in whole A. muscaria fruiting bodies but did not show significant differences in their levels between caps and stems (P value>0.05 and/or OPLS-DA loading correlation coefficient <0.4). This methodology allowed for the differentiation between the fruiting bodies of A. muscaria from mineral and mineral-organic topsoil. Moreover, the metabolomic approach and multivariate tools enabled to ascribe the basidiomata of fly agaric to the type of topsoil. Obtained results revealed that stems metabolome is more dependent on the topsoil type than caps. The correlation between metabolites and topsoil contents together with its properties exhibited mutual dependences.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amanita / chemistry*
  • Amanita / metabolism*
  • Ecosystem
  • Fruiting Bodies, Fungal / chemistry*
  • Fruiting Bodies, Fungal / metabolism*
  • Soil / chemistry*


  • Soil

Grants and funding

The research was supported by Wroclaw Research Centre EIT + under the project “Biotechnologies and advanced medical technologies” – BioMed (POIG.01.01.02-02-003/08) financed by the European Regional Development Fund (Operational Programme Innovative Economy, 1.1.2). Stanislaw Deja was recipient of Ph.D. scholarship under a project funded by the European Social Fund. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.