Depression, anxiety, antidepressant use, and cardiovascular disease among Hispanic men and women of different national backgrounds: results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

Ann Epidemiol. 2014 Nov;24(11):822-30. doi: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2014.09.003. Epub 2014 Sep 11.


Purpose: To describe prevalence and relationships to cardiovascular morbidity of depression, anxiety, and medication use among Hispanic/Latinos of different ethnic backgrounds.

Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of 15,864 men and women aged 18 to 74 years in the population-based Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed with shortened Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and Spielberger Trait Anxiety Scale.

Results: Prevalence of high depressive symptoms ranged from low of 22.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 20.4-24.3) to high of 38.0% (95% CI, 35.2-41.0) among those of Mexican or Puerto Rican background, respectively. Adjusted odds ratios for depression rose monotonically with number of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor from 1.46 (95% CI, 1.18-1.75) for those with one risk factors to 4.36 (95% CI, 2.47-7.70) for those with five risk factors. Antidepressant medication was used by 5% with striking differences between those with and without history of CVD (15.4% and 4.6%, respectively) and between insured (8.2%) and uninsured (1.8%).

Conclusions: Among US Hispanics/Latinos, high depression and anxiety symptoms varied nearly twofold by Hispanic background and sex, history of CVD, and increasing number of CVD risk factors. Antidepressant medication use was lower than in the general population, suggesting under treatment especially among those who had no health insurance.

Keywords: Antianxiety medications; Antidepressants; Anxiety; Cardiovascular risk; Depression; Ethnic differences; HCHS/SOL; Hispanics; Latinos.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Antidepressive Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Anxiety / ethnology*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / ethnology*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Depression / ethnology*
  • Drug Utilization
  • Emigrants and Immigrants / statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • Hispanic or Latino*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Distribution
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Young Adult


  • Antidepressive Agents