Review of the emerging treatment of Clostridium difficile infection with fecal microbiota transplantation and insights into future challenges

Clin Lab Med. 2014 Dec;34(4):787-98. doi: 10.1016/j.cll.2014.08.007. Epub 2014 Sep 30.


Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most common health care-associated infections in the United States. Currently, there are no standardized methods to prepare or deliver the fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Various methods are used to prepare the FMT, which is usually administered via nasogastric tube, colonoscopy, or by enema. Several clinical trials are underway to assess the true efficacy and safety of FMT for CDI. These trials include CDI studies assessing FMT via colonoscopy and frozen encapsulation, fresh versus frozen-and-thawed FMT by enema, FMT compared with a vancomycin taper, and FMT in the pediatric population.

Keywords: Clostridium difficile; Fecal microbiota transplantation; Health care–associated infections; Treatment.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Clostridioides difficile
  • Clostridium Infections / therapy*
  • Feces / microbiology*
  • Humans
  • Treatment Outcome