Ectopic pregnancy rates and racial disparities in the Medicaid population, 2004-2008

Fertil Steril. 2014 Dec;102(6):1671-6. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2014.08.031. Epub 2014 Oct 14.


Objective: To assess 2004-2008 ectopic pregnancy rates among Medicaid recipients in 14 states and 2000-2008 time trends in three states and to identify differences in rate by race/ethnicity.

Design: Secondary analysis of Medicaid administrative claims data.

Setting: Not applicable.

Patient(s): Women ages 15-44 enrolled in Medicaid in Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, New York, or Texas in 2004-2008 (n = 19,135,106) and in California, Illinois, and New York in 2000-2003.

Intervention(s): None.

Main outcome measure(s): Number of ectopic pregnancies divided by the number of total pregnancies (spontaneous abortions, induced abortions, ectopic pregnancies, and all births).

Result(s): The 2004-2008 Medicaid ectopic pregnancy rate for all 14 states combined was 1.40% of all reported pregnancies. Adjusted for age, the rate was 1.47%. Ectopic pregnancy incidence was 2.3 per 1,000 woman-years. In states for which longer term data were available (California, Illinois, and New York), the rate declined significantly in 2000-2008. In all 14 states, black women were more likely to experience an ectopic pregnancy compared with whites (relative risk, 1.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.45-1.47).

Conclusion(s): Ectopic pregnancy remains an important health risk for women enrolled in Medicaid. Black women are at consistently higher risk than whites.

Keywords: Ectopic pregnancy; Medicaid; health status disparities.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Black People / statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • Health Status Disparities
  • Humans
  • Medicaid*
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Rate
  • Pregnancy, Ectopic / epidemiology*
  • Pregnancy, Ectopic / ethnology
  • United States / epidemiology