Clostridium difficile infection: prevention, treatment, and surgical management

Surg Clin North Am. 2014 Dec;94(6):1335-49. doi: 10.1016/j.suc.2014.08.006. Epub 2014 Sep 27.


Clostridium difficile is increasing in both incidence and severity. Although metronidazole and vancomycin remain the gold standard for medical management, and surgical colectomy the gold standard for surgical management, new treatment alternatives, including the creation of a diverting loop ileostomy along with colonic lavage and vancomycin enemas, are being investigated that may lead to changes in the current treatment algorithms. The most exciting development in the treatment options for C difficile infection, however, is likely to be novel immunologic agents, which hold the potential to reduce the incidence, mortality, and costs associated with C difficile.

Keywords: Colectomy; Fecal microbiota therapy; Ileostomy; Vancomycin.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Clostridioides difficile* / isolation & purification
  • Colectomy
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous* / diagnosis
  • Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous* / etiology
  • Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Ileostomy
  • Recurrence
  • Risk Factors
  • Severity of Illness Index


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents