Real-time use of instantaneous wave-free ratio: results of the ADVISE in-practice: an international, multicenter evaluation of instantaneous wave-free ratio in clinical practice

Am Heart J. 2014 Nov;168(5):739-48. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2014.06.022. Epub 2014 Jul 21.


Objectives: To evaluate the first experience of real-time instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) measurement by clinicians.

Background: The iFR is a new vasodilator-free index of coronary stenosis severity, calculated as a trans-lesion pressure ratio during a specific period of baseline diastole, when distal resistance is lowest and stable. Because all previous studies have calculated iFR offline, the feasibility of real-time iFR measurement has never been assessed.

Methods: Three hundred ninety-two stenoses with angiographically intermediate stenoses were included in this multicenter international analysis. Instantaneous wave-free ratio and fractional flow reserve (FFR) were performed in real time on commercially available consoles. The classification agreement of coronary stenoses between iFR and FFR was calculated.

Results: Instantaneous wave-free ratio and FFR maintain a close level of diagnostic agreement when both are measured by clinicians in real time (for a clinical 0.80 FFR cutoff: area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [ROC(AUC)] 0.87, classification match 80%, and optimal iFR cutoff 0.90; for a ischemic 0.75 FFR cutoff: iFR ROC(AUC) 0.90, classification match 88%, and optimal iFR cutoff 0.85; if the FFR 0.75-0.80 gray zone is accounted for: ROC(AUC) 0.93, classification match 92%). When iFR and FFR are evaluated together in a hybrid decision-making strategy, 61% of the population is spared from vasodilator while maintaining a 94% overall agreement with FFR lesion classification.

Conclusion: When measured in real time, iFR maintains the close relationship to FFR reported in offline studies. These findings confirm the feasibility and reliability of real-time iFR calculation by clinicians.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Area Under Curve
  • Cardiac Catheterization / methods
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Coronary Angiography / methods
  • Coronary Circulation*
  • Coronary Stenosis / diagnosis*
  • Female
  • Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • ROC Curve
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Severity of Illness Index