Ring-reinforced Sano conduit at Norwood stage I reduces proximal conduit obstruction

Ann Thorac Surg. 2015 Jan;99(1):171-9. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2014.08.078. Epub 2014 Nov 14.


Background: Reinterventions for proximal conduit obstruction or on the pulmonary arteries are frequent after the Sano-modified stage I Norwood palliation of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. We report our initial experience with a modified Sano technique using a ring-reinforced graft inserted transmurally through the right ventricle with a limited ventriculotomy.

Methods: All patients who underwent the Sano-modified stage I Norwood procedure using a modified "dunked" technique from September 2010 to September 2012 at our institution were reviewed. An historical control group consisted of patients undergoing the traditional Sano right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery conduit anastomosed to the epicardium. The primary outcome measures included death, reintervention on the Sano and pulmonary arteries, and ventricular function.

Results: The study included 29 patients. No patients required intervention on the Sano conduit, pulmonary arteries, or aortic arch before discharge after the stage I procedure. During a median follow-up of 20 months (range, 26 days to 3.3 years), survival was estimated at 96.6% ± 3.4% at 1 month and 86.2% ± 6.4% at the latest follow-up. One patient underwent heart transplantation. No interstage intervention was required on the proximal or distal Sano conduit. Intervention was required on the midportion of the conduit in 1 patient and on the pulmonary arteries in 3 patients. At the time of the bidirectional Glenn anastomosis, freedom from conduit and pulmonary artery intervention was estimated at 92.3% ± 7.4% and 90.1% ± 8.7%, respectively, and global right ventricular dysfunction was mild or less in 84% (16 of 19) of patients.

Conclusions: The ring-reinforced right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery Sano conduit transmurally inserted into the right ventricle provides acceptable results, with a low incidence of interstage reinterventions in patients undergoing stage I palliation.

MeSH terms

  • Arterial Occlusive Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Child, Preschool
  • Humans
  • Norwood Procedures / instrumentation*
  • Norwood Procedures / methods*
  • Polytetrafluoroethylene*
  • Postoperative Complications / prevention & control*
  • Prostheses and Implants*
  • Pulmonary Artery / surgery*
  • Retrospective Studies


  • Polytetrafluoroethylene