Clinical outcome after infrapopliteal bypass surgery in chronic hemodialysis patients with critical limb ischemia

J Vasc Surg. 2015 Feb;61(2):400-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2014.09.007. Epub 2014 Oct 23.

Abstract

Objective: Lower extremity bypass surgery has been widely performed to treat critical limb ischemia (CLI) in patients on hemodialysis (HD). However, the clinical outcome still remains unclear. We investigated the limb salvage rate after infrapopliteal bypass surgery in HD patients with CLI.

Methods: From April 2006 to January 2013, 226 patients with 236 limbs who electively underwent bypass surgery for treatment of CLI due to infrapopliteal disease were enrolled. Patients were grouped by those who were on HD (n = 177) and those who were not (n = 49). They were monitored for 5 years or until December 2013 if the follow-up period was <5 years. Amputation-free survival, defined as freedom from major amputation or all-cause death, was primarily evaluated. Incidence of reintervention was also analyzed.

Results: Ulcer/gangrene was present in 206 patients (91.2%), and 233 limbs (98.7%) were treated using autogenous vein. Age was younger (67 ± 9 vs 72 ± 9 years; P = .0011) and ulcer/gangrene was more prevalent (93.8% vs 81.6%, P = .0080) in HD patients than in non-HD patients. During the follow-up period (median, 28 months), 33 (14.6%) major amputations and 28 reinterventions (12.4%) occurred, and 65 patients (28.8%) died. The 5-year amputation-free survival rate was significantly lower in HD patients than in non-HD patients (43.6% vs 78.8%, P = .0033), and the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for amputation or death for HD patients was 2.36 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-4.92; P = .022). Compared with non-HD patients, the status of HD was similarly an independent risk of major amputation (72.4% vs 92.5%; adjusted HR, 4.36; 95% CI, 1.04-18.3; P = .045) and mortality (56.9% vs 83.2%; adjusted HR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.30-6.09; P = .0085). However, freedom from reintervention was comparable between the two groups (84.3% vs 86.8%; P = .89). In HD patients, body mass index (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.76-0.96; per 1 kg/m(2) increase; P = .014) and C-reactive protein (HR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.01-1.11; P = .014) independently predicted major amputation. Elevated C-reactive protein levels were also associated with death (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.09; P = .047).

Conclusions: The clinical outcome after infrapopliteal bypass surgery was poorer in HD patients with CLI compared with non-HD patients. Malnutrition or chronic inflammation was associated with poor outcome in HD patients with CLI due to infrapopliteal occlusive disease.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Amputation
  • Comorbidity
  • Critical Illness
  • Disease-Free Survival
  • Elective Surgical Procedures
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / epidemiology
  • Ischemia / diagnosis
  • Ischemia / mortality
  • Ischemia / surgery*
  • Japan
  • Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  • Kidney Diseases / diagnosis
  • Kidney Diseases / mortality
  • Kidney Diseases / therapy*
  • Limb Salvage
  • Lower Extremity / blood supply*
  • Male
  • Malnutrition / epidemiology
  • Middle Aged
  • Postoperative Complications / mortality
  • Postoperative Complications / surgery
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Renal Dialysis* / adverse effects
  • Renal Dialysis* / mortality
  • Reoperation
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Vascular Surgical Procedures* / adverse effects
  • Vascular Surgical Procedures* / mortality