Objective: We have previously shown that peripheral artery disease (PAD) is associated with marked impairment of endothelial function (EF). Given that poor EF is associated with functional status of PAD patients as well as with increased morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing vascular procedures, determination of factors associated with poor EF in a PAD cohort is important. We hypothesized that decreased kidney function is associated with impaired EF in patients with PAD.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of PAD patients presenting to a vascular surgery outpatient clinic at the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center including patients enrolled in the OMEGA-PAD I trial (NCT01310270) and the OMEGA-PAD Cohort. Brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation was performed to assess EF. Kidney function was characterized by estimated glomerular filtration rate with the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Linear regression was performed to assess the relationship between EF and kidney function in claudicants.
Results: Ninety-seven patients with intermittent claudication participated in this study. Mean age was 69 ± 8 years, 97% were male, and 79% were white. Comorbidities included hypertension (91%), dyslipidemia (87%), coronary artery disease (42%), and diabetes mellitus (38%). Mean ankle-brachial index was 0.73 ± 0.14 and mean flow-mediated vasodilation was 7.0% ± 3.8%, indicating impaired EF. Linear regression showed an association between kidney function and EF (by 10 mL/min/1.73 m(2); β, 0.12; confidence interval, 0.05-0.20; P = .001). After multivariable regression adjusting for age, race, log tumor necrosis factor α, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes, estimated glomerular filtration rate remained significantly associated with EF (P = .033).
Conclusions: In patients with PAD, decreased kidney function is associated with endothelial dysfunction. Further longitudinal studies are needed to better understand the impact of kidney function on PAD progression and the role of endothelial dysfunction in this process.
Published by Elsevier Inc.