Performance-enhancing drugs: understanding the risks

Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2014 Nov;25(4):897-913. doi: 10.1016/j.pmr.2014.06.013. Epub 2014 Aug 15.


To help clinicians understand the risks associated with performance-enhancing drugs, this overview covers prohibited lists of substances and methods, therapeutic use exemptions, the legitimate indications and adverse effects, including for megadose and polypharmacy doping of stimulants, anabolic steroids, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, and growth hormone and ways in which physicians or patients risk committing anti-doping rule violations inadvertently.

Keywords: Anabolic steroids; Blood doping; Dietary supplements; Growth hormone; Nonanalytical positive doping cases; Sports doping; Stimulants; Therapeutic use exemptions.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Dietary Supplements / statistics & numerical data*
  • Doping in Sports*
  • Humans
  • Performance-Enhancing Substances / pharmacology*
  • Risk Assessment*


  • Performance-Enhancing Substances