Pediatric Recipient Survival Beyond 15 Post-Heart Transplant Years: A Single-Center Experience

Ann Thorac Surg. 2014 Dec;98(6):2145-50; discussion 2150-1. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2014.06.035. Epub 2014 Oct 18.

Abstract

Background: We evaluated late survival among pediatric heart transplant patients who have lived more than 15 years.

Methods: This is a retrospective chart review of the pediatric patients who underwent heart transplantation (HTx) between 1985 and 1998. Multivariate and univariate analyses were examined.

Results: There were 183 recipients, of whom 151 are currently alive. Age at HTx ranged from 0 days to 17.48 years (median 56 days). Pretransplant diagnoses included congenital heart disease 142 (77.6%), cardiomyopathy 38 (20.8%), and tumor 3 (1.6%). Pretransplant renal dysfunction was present in 58 patients (31.7%). Perioperative peritoneal dialysis was instituted in 15 patients, all recovered. During the follow-up period (median 20.2 years), 17 (9.3%) have had renal transplants, and 2 require hemodialysis. There were 32 deaths from the following: cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV); 11 (34.3%); posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease 6 (18.8%); acute rejection 4 (12.5%); sepsis 2 (6.3%); multiorgan failure 1 (3.1%); and unknown 8 (25%). Immunosuppressive therapy for the living patients consists of monotherapy 25 (17.7%), dual therapy 87 (61.7%), triple therapy 24 (17%), quadruple therapy 5 (3.5%), and 10 unknown. Cardiac re-Tx was required for CAV in 30 patients and for graft failure in 6 patients. Four patients required a third transplant for CAV. For those who survived more than 15 years after HTx, actuarial survival to 20 years and 25 years is 82% and 78%, respectively.

Conclusions: Pediatric HTx provides acceptable long-term survival. Cardiac re-Tx and renal transplantation offer reasonable palliation for recipients who develop CAV and renal dysfunction.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Age Distribution
  • California / epidemiology
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Forecasting*
  • Graft Rejection / epidemiology*
  • Graft Survival
  • Heart Transplantation / mortality*
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Assessment*
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Distribution
  • Survival Rate / trends