Objective: To evaluate the association between nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and the risk of prostate cancer (PC) detection in men undergoing biopsy.
Methods: Men were identified using our academic institution's prospectively maintained prostate biopsy database. Patients were classified as aspirin (ASA) users, users of other NSAIDs, or nonusers. The primary outcome was any PC on biopsy, and the secondary outcome was clinically significant PC (CSPC; Gleason sum ≥7). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to adjust for a priori defined clinical confounders.
Results: Of 839 patients, 408 (48.6%) were diagnosed with PC and 201 (24.0%) had CSPC. A higher proportion of ASA users (63.5%) and other NSAID users (61.2%) had PC compared with nonusers (41.9%; P <.001). CSPC was more common among ASA users (34.9%; P <.001) compared with other NSAID users (20.0%) and nonusers (20.9%). In multivariate regression analyses, ASA use (odds ratio [OR] = 2.04; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32-3.13; P = .001) and other NSAID use (OR = 2.42; 95% CI = 1.36-431; P = .003) were associated with higher odds of PC detection, whereas ASA use was associated with higher odds of CSPC (OR = 1.62; 95% CI = 1.00-2.62; P = .048).
Conclusion: In men undergoing biopsy, ASA and other NSAID use were associated with increased probability of detecting PC, whereas ASA use was associated with the risk of detecting CSPC. Although NSAID use might have a protective biological effect against PC, men who develop elevated prostate-specific antigen levels while on NSAIDs may nonetheless be less likely to have an inflammatory etiology and more likely to harbor PC. It may be warranted for clinicians to consider the influence of NSAIDs when evaluating patients being considered for biopsy.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.