Low prevalence of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults in northern India

Diabet Med. 2015 Jun;32(6):810-3. doi: 10.1111/dme.12644. Epub 2014 Dec 12.


Aim: To study the frequency of islet antibodies in a large cohort of clinic- and community-based patients with Type 2 diabetes in northern India.

Methods: We measured glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibodies in 618 adults with Type 2 diabetes (378 patients with diabetes attending a hospital clinic, 240 patients diagnosed in a community survey) and in 192 healthy subjects residing in north India. Islet antigen 2 (IA2) antibodies were also studied in a proportion of the patients with diabetes (n = 492) and in a control population (n = 191). GAD and IA2 antibodies were measured by immunoprecipitation of the respective (35) S-labelled recombinant antigen.

Results: We found that GAD antibodies were present in nine (1.5%) patients with diabetes (clinic population: 0.8%, community study: 2.5%), a prevalence similar to that among the subjects without diabetes (n = 2; 1%). IA2 antibodies were detected in seven patients with Type 2 diabetes (1.4%) and in two healthy control subjects (1.0%). The frequency of either GAD or IA2 antibodies was similar in people with and without diabetes (3.2 vs 2.1%). No subject was found to have both antibodies. Insulin requirement was higher among antibody-positive than among antibody-negative patients (GAD antibody: 33 vs 6.3%; P = 0.001; GAD or IA2 antibody: 23.1 vs 6.4%; P = 0.02); however, other clinical features were similar in the two groups.

Conclusions: In the present north-Indian population with Type 2 diabetes, the overall prevalence of GAD antibodies and the prevalence of either GAD or IA2 antibodies were considerably lower than those reported in white European populations.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Autoantibodies / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / epidemiology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / immunology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / immunology
  • Female
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase / immunology
  • Humans
  • India / epidemiology
  • Islets of Langerhans / immunology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence


  • Autoantibodies
  • ICA512 autoantibody
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase