Extreme furfural tolerance of a soil bacterium Enterobacter cloacae GGT036

J Biotechnol. 2015 Jan 10;193:11-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2014.11.001. Epub 2014 Nov 10.


Detoxification process of cellular inhibitors including furfural is essential for production of bio-based chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass. Here we isolated an extreme furfural-tolerant bacterium Enterobacter cloacae GGT036 from soil sample collected in Mt. Gwanak, Republic of Korea. Among isolated bacteria, only E. cloacae GGT036 showed cell growth with 35 mM furfural under aerobic culture. Compared to the maximal half inhibitory concentration (IC50) of well-known industrial strains Escherichia coli (24.9 mM furfural) and Corynebacterium glutamicum (10 mM furfural) based on the cell density, IC50 of E. cloacae GGT036 (47.7 mM) was significantly higher after 24 h, compared to E. coli and C. glutamicum. Since bacterial cell growth was exponentially inhibited depending on linearly increased furfural concentrations in the medium, we concluded that E. cloacae GGT036 is an extreme furfural-tolerant bacterium. Recently, the complete genome sequence of E. cloacae GGT036 was announced and this could provide an insight for engineering of E. cloacae GGT036 itself or other industrially relevant bacteria.

Keywords: Detoxification; Enterobacter cloacae; Furfural tolerance; IC(50).

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Enterobacter cloacae / drug effects*
  • Enterobacter cloacae / metabolism
  • Enterobacter cloacae / physiology*
  • Furaldehyde / metabolism
  • Furaldehyde / toxicity*
  • Furans / metabolism
  • Furans / toxicity
  • Inhibitory Concentration 50
  • Microbial Viability
  • Soil
  • Soil Microbiology


  • Furans
  • Soil
  • furfuryl alcohol
  • Furaldehyde