Because of concern that United States (US) chronic hemodialysis patients are at high risk for the development of vitamin deficiencies, the great majority of such patients are routinely supplemented with a multivitamin. This policy is supported by major US dialysis providers and nonprofit organizations. Yet routine multivitamin supplementation expands hemodialysis patients' already large pill burden, probably accounts for many millions of dollars in annual costs, and in light of previous reports may even carry with it the possibility of increased risk of adverse outcomes. An analysis of the benefits of routine multivitamin supplementation in US patients is therefore in order. We performed a systematic review of the medical literature between 1970 and 2014 using the Ovid MEDLINE database to address this question. We conclude that there is insufficient evidence to support routine multivitamin use and recommend that the decision to supplement be made on an individual basis.
Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.