Oesophageal atresia and tracheo-oesophageal fistula

Early Hum Dev. 2014 Dec;90(12):947-50. doi: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2014.09.012. Epub 2014 Nov 7.


Oesophageal atresia with tracheo-oesophageal fistula is a relatively common congenital anomaly occurring in around 1:2500 births. The aetiology and embryology of the condition remain unclear, whilst associations with other significant anomalies are common. Studies in rodent models are contributing to our understanding of the condition. Advances in surgical care and neonatal management have improved survival considerably to around 90%. Long-gap and isolated oesophageal atresia present significant management challenges. Post-operative and long-term complications including oesophageal stricture, gastro-oesophageal reflux and respiratory compromise however remain relatively common and continue to pose a challenge for the ongoing management of patients.

Keywords: Neonatal; Oesophageal atresia; Oesophageal stricture; Paediatric; Tracheo-oesophageal fistula.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Child Development
  • Esophageal Atresia / embryology
  • Esophageal Atresia / etiology
  • Esophageal Atresia / surgery*
  • Guidelines as Topic
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Postoperative Complications
  • Prognosis
  • Tracheoesophageal Fistula / embryology
  • Tracheoesophageal Fistula / etiology
  • Tracheoesophageal Fistula / surgery