Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) has been the focus of intense research because ligands for this receptor have emerged as potent insulin sensitizers used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. There have been described three PPAR isotypes α, δ and γ which have an integrated role in controlling the expression of genes playing key roles in the storage and mobilization of lipids, in glucose metabolism, in morphogenesis and inflammatory response. Recent advances include the discovery of novel genes that are regulated by PPARγ, which helps to explain how activation of this adipocyte predominant transcription factor regulates glucose and lipid homeostasis. Increased levels of circulating free fatty acids and lipid accumulation in non-adipose tissue have been implicated in the development of insulin resistance. This situation is improved by PPARγ ligands, which promotes fatty acid storage in fat deposits and regulates the expression of adipocyte-secreted hormones that impacts on glucose homeostasis. So the net result of the pleiotropic effects of PPARγ ligands is improvement of insulin sensitivity. This review highlights the roles that PPAR gamma play in the regulation of gene expression of multiple diseases including obesity, diabetes and cancer and highlights the gene isolation transformation role. Further studies are needed for the transformation of PPAR gamma gene in plants and evaluate in animals for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Keywords: Glucose homeostasis; Inflammatory response; Insulin sensitivity; PPAR gamma; Transformation.
Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.