Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus: prevalence and risk factors among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus in an Urban District of Karachi, Pakistan

Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2015 Jan;107(1):148-56. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2014.09.025. Epub 2014 Oct 5.


Aims: This study aimed to explore the prevalence of, and factors associated with, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (UDM) in a community setting in Pakistan.

Methodology: A single-center, cross-sectional study, conducted in a community-based specialized care center (SCC) for diabetes in District Central Karachi, in 2003, registered 452 type 2 DM participants, tested for HbA1c and interviewed face-to-face for other information. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with UDM.

Results: Prevalence of UDM among diabetes patients was found to be 38.9% (95% CI: 34.4-43.4%). Multivariable logistic regression model analysis indicated that age <50 years (OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2-2.9), being diagnosed in a hospital (vs. a clinic) (OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.1-2.8), diabetes information from a doctor or nurse only (vs. multiple sources) (OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2-2.9), higher monthly treatment cost (OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1-1.6; for every extra 500 PKR), and higher consumption of tea (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0-2.2; for every 2 extra cups) were independently associated with UDM.

Conclusion: The prevalence of UDM was approximately 39% among persons with type 2 diabetes visiting a community based SCC for diabetes. Modifiable risk factors such as sources of diabetes information and black tea consumption can be considered as potential targets of interventions in Karachi.

Keywords: Asia; Diabetes mellitusType 2; Prevalence; Risk factors; Tea; Uncontrolled.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology*
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Hyperglycemia / epidemiology*
  • Hyperglycemia / etiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pakistan / epidemiology
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Urban Population / statistics & numerical data


  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • hemoglobin A1c protein, human