Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis is a common manifestation of CMV end-organ disease, which has typically been described in immunocompromised hosts. Recently, it has been noted that this also occurs in immunocompetent patients. To gather relevant data about clinical presentation, prognosis, and risk factors for development of CMV colitis in immunocompetent hosts, we analyzed all cases that occurred during a 19-year period at our institution.
Methods: A case-control study was performed to identify risk factors for CMV colitis in immunocompetent hosts. Electronic medical records of individuals who were admitted and diagnosed with CMV colitis between January 1995 and February 2014 at a tertiary care university hospital were reviewed. Two non-CMV colitis patients who were age- and sex-matched were selected as controls for each case.
Results: A total of 51 patients with CMV colitis were included in this study along with 102 control patients. Certain conditions including renal disease on hemodialysis, neurologic disease, rheumatologic disease, intensive care unit admission, and exposure to antibiotics, antacids, steroids, or red blood cell (RBC) transfusions within 1 month of diagnosis of colitis were associated with CMV colitis on univariate analysis. Among these, steroid use and RBC transfusion within 1 month were identified as independent risk factors for developing CMV colitis on multivariate analysis. The 30-day mortality rate was 7.8% without any attributable mortality.
Conclusions: Steroid use and RBC transfusion within 1 month of the diagnosis of colitis were independent risk factors for development of CMV colitis in immunocompetent hosts.
Keywords: blood transfusion; colitis; cytomegalovirus; risk factors; steroids.
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