Large tumors exhibit high interstitial pressure heightened by growth against the constraining stroma. Such pressures could stimulate tumor proliferation via a mechanosensitive ion channel. We studied the effects of 0-80 mmHg increased extracellular pressure for 24 h on proliferation of SW620, Caco-2, and CT-26 colon; MCF-7 breast; and MLL and PC3 prostate cancer cells, and delineated its mechanism in SW620 cells with specific inhibitors and siRNA. Finally, we compared NF-kB, phospho-IkB and cyclin D1 immunoreactivity in the high pressure centers and low pressure peripheries of human tumors. Pressure-stimulated proliferation in all cells. Pressure-driven SW620 proliferation required calcium influx via the T-type Ca(2+) channel Cav3.3, which stimulated PKC-β to invoke the IKK-IkB-NF-kB pathway to increase proliferation and S-phase fraction. The mitotic index and immunoreactivity of NF-kB, phospho-IkB, and cyclin D1 in the center of 28 large human colon, lung, and head and neck tumors exceeded that in tumor peripheries. Extracellular pressure increases [Ca(2+)]i via Cav3.3, driving a PKC-β- IKK- IkB-NF-kB pathway that stimulates cancer cell proliferation. Rapid proliferation in large stiff tumors may increase intratumoral pressure, activating this pathway to stimulate further proliferation in a feedback cycle that potentiates tumor growth. Targeting this pathway may inhibit proliferation in large unresectable tumors.
Keywords: Calcium channels; Cav3.3; NF-kB; PKC; Pressure; Proliferation.
Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.