Adenoma localization for recurrent or persistent primary hyperparathyroidism using dynamic four-dimensional CT and venous sampling

J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2015 Jan;26(1):79-86. doi: 10.1016/j.jvir.2014.09.019. Epub 2014 Nov 14.


Purpose: To determine if parathyroid venous sampling (PVS) combined with four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) improves sensitivity and accuracy of identification of parathyroid adenoma in patients with recurrent or persistent primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) and negative technetium-99m methoxyisobutyl isonitrile ((99m)Tc-MIBI) and ultrasound (US) scans.

Materials and methods: Both PVS and 4D CT were performed in 28 patients with recurrent or persistent pHPT and negative (99m)Tc-MIBI and US examinations. Localization by 4D CT alone and in combination with PVS and lateralization by PVS alone were retrospectively assessed for correlation with surgical results. Suspected adenomas on 4D CT were said to correlate with PVS if venous drainage identified on CT corresponded to sites of elevated parathyroid hormone concentration on PVS. Lesions difficult to identify on 4D CT were lesions < 1 cm in longest dimension. Results of 4D CT were classified as positive, negative, or equivocal.

Results: Surgery was performed in 22 of 28 patients. Surgery identified 23 parathyroid adenomas, 1 carcinoma, and 2 hyperplastic glands in 20 patients. 4D-CT alone localized 11 lesions in 10 patients. PVS helped localize 13 additional lesions in nine more patients and clarified two lesions that were equivocal on 4D CT. Comparing 4D CT alone with 4D CT plus PVS, the sensitivity increased from 50% to 95% (P = .004), and accuracy increased from 55% to 91% (P = .022). PVS lateralization had a sensitivity of 93.3%, positive predictive value of 66.7%, and accuracy of 63.6%.

Conclusions: PVS significantly improves 4D CT localization of parathyroid adenomas in patients undergoing repeat surgery for pHPT with negative (99m)Tc-MIBI and US.

MeSH terms

  • Adenoma / blood*
  • Adenoma / diagnostic imaging*
  • Aged
  • Female
  • Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography*
  • Humans
  • Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / blood*
  • Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnostic imaging*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Parathyroid Glands / diagnostic imaging
  • Parathyroid Glands / surgery
  • Parathyroid Neoplasms / blood*
  • Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging*
  • Radiopharmaceuticals
  • Recurrence
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
  • Ultrasonography


  • Radiopharmaceuticals
  • Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi