Background: Neovasculogenesis, vital for wound healing, gets compromised in diabetics patients, which consequently delayed wound healing. Previous studies have shown curcumin as both a stimulatory and an inhibitory agent in the neovasculogenesis process. So, present study was aimed to investigate the effects of curcumin on wound healing in diabetic rats and to explore the expressions of the various factors involved in neovasculogenesis.
Materials and methods: Open excisional diabetic wound was created in sixty rats and divided into three groups viz. i) control, ii) pluronic gel-treated, and iii) curcumin-treated. The pluronic F-127 gel (25%) and curcumin (0.3%) in the pluronic gel were topically applied once daily for 19 d. The wound healing and neovasculogenesis among these groups were evaluated by gross appearance of wounds and microscopically by hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemistry for CD31, messenger RNA expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, hypoxia-inducible growth factor-1 alpha, stromal cell-derived growth factor-1 alpha, and heme oxygenase-1, and Western blotting studies of VEGF and TGF-β1 in granulation and/or healing tissue on days 3, 7, 14, and 19.
Results: Curcumin application caused markedly fast wound closure with well-formed granulation tissue dominated by fibroblast proliferation, collagen deposition, and complete early regenerated epithelial layer. Immunohistochemistry for CD31 revealed well-formed blood vessels with increased microvessel density on days 3, 7, and 14 in the curcumin-treated group. Expressions of VEGF and TGF-β1 on days 3, 7, and 14, hypoxia-inducible growth factor-1 alpha, stromal cell-derived growth factor-1 alpha, and heme oxygenase-1 on days 3 and 7 were increased in curcumin-treated diabetic rats, as compared with other groups.
Conclusions: Curcumin enhanced the neovasculogenesis and accelerated the wound healing in diabetic rats by increased expressions of various factors.
Keywords: Curcumin; Diabetic wound; Healing; Neovasculogenesis; Rats.
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