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Boiling Sheep Liver or Lung for 30 Minutes Is Necessary and Sufficient to Kill Echinococcus Granulosus Protoscoleces in Hydatid Cysts

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Boiling Sheep Liver or Lung for 30 Minutes Is Necessary and Sufficient to Kill Echinococcus Granulosus Protoscoleces in Hydatid Cysts

Jun Li et al. Parasite.

Abstract

Proper disposal of carcasses and offal after home slaughter is difficult in poor and remote communities and therefore dogs readily have access to hydatid cysts containing offal from livestock, thus completing the parasite cycle of Echinococcus granulosus and putting communities at risk of cystic echinococcosis. Boiling livers and lungs which contain hydatid cysts could be a simple, efficient and energy- and time-saving way to kill the infectious protoscoleces. The aim of this study was to provide precise practical recommendations to livestock owners. Our results show that boiling the whole sheep liver and/or lung, with single or multiple hydatid cysts, for 30 min is necessary and sufficient to kill E. granulosus protoscoleces in hydatid cysts. Advertising on this simple rule in at-risk communities would be an efficient and cheap complement to other veterinary public health operations to control cystic echinococcosis.

Figures

Figure 1.
Figure 1.
Efficacy of killing Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces (PSCs) by boiling sheep livers containing hydatid cysts. Panel I: (a) normal PSCs were collected from cysts before boiling; (b–e) PSCs were collected from sheep livers boiled for 5, 10, 20 and 30 min, respectively. Panel II: (A) a non-boiled sheep liver containing E. granulosus cysts; (B–E) livers boiled for 5, 10, 20 and 30 min, respectively. PSCs stained in blue are dead PSCs.
Figure 1.
Figure 1.
Efficacy of killing Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces (PSCs) by boiling sheep livers containing hydatid cysts. Panel I: (a) normal PSCs were collected from cysts before boiling; (b–e) PSCs were collected from sheep livers boiled for 5, 10, 20 and 30 min, respectively. Panel II: (A) a non-boiled sheep liver containing E. granulosus cysts; (B–E) livers boiled for 5, 10, 20 and 30 min, respectively. PSCs stained in blue are dead PSCs.
Figure 2.
Figure 2.
Efficacy of killing Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces (PSCs) by boiling sheep lungs containing hydatid cysts. Panel I: (a) normal PSCs were collected from cysts before boiling; (b–e) PSCs were collected from sheep livers boiled for 5, 10, 20 and 30 min, respectively. Panel II: (A) a non-boiled sheep lung containing E. granulosus cysts; (B–E) lungs boiled for 5, 10, 20 and 30 min, respectively. PSCs stained in blue are dead PSCs.
Figure 2.
Figure 2.
Efficacy of killing Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces (PSCs) by boiling sheep lungs containing hydatid cysts. Panel I: (a) normal PSCs were collected from cysts before boiling; (b–e) PSCs were collected from sheep livers boiled for 5, 10, 20 and 30 min, respectively. Panel II: (A) a non-boiled sheep lung containing E. granulosus cysts; (B–E) lungs boiled for 5, 10, 20 and 30 min, respectively. PSCs stained in blue are dead PSCs.
Figure 3.
Figure 3.
Haematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining of E. granulosus cysts from livers (A) and lungs (B) of sheep. I, normal cyst; II–V, cysts boiled for 5, 10, 20 and 30 min, respectively. GL, germinal layer; LL, laminated layer; PSC, protoscolex.
Figure 3.
Figure 3.
Haematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining of E. granulosus cysts from livers (A) and lungs (B) of sheep. I, normal cyst; II–V, cysts boiled for 5, 10, 20 and 30 min, respectively. GL, germinal layer; LL, laminated layer; PSC, protoscolex.

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