Tracheal bioengineering: the next steps. Proceeds of an International Society of Cell Therapy Pulmonary Cellular Therapy Signature Series Workshop, Paris, France, April 22, 2014

Cytotherapy. 2014 Dec;16(12):1601-13. doi: 10.1016/j.jcyt.2014.10.012. Epub 2014 Nov 18.


There has been significant and exciting recent progress in the development of bioengineering approaches for generating tracheal tissue that can be used for congenital and acquired tracheal diseases. This includes a growing clinical experience in both pediatric and adult patients with life-threatening tracheal diseases. However, not all of these attempts have been successful, and there is ongoing discussion and debate about the optimal approaches to be used. These include considerations of optimal materials, particularly use of synthetic versus biologic scaffolds, appropriate cellularization of the scaffolds, optimal surgical approaches and optimal measure of both clinical and biologic outcomes. To address these issues, the International Society of Cell Therapy convened a first-ever meeting of the leading clinicians and tracheal biologists, along with experts in regulatory and ethical affairs, to discuss and debate the issues. A series of recommendations are presented for how to best move the field ahead.

Keywords: consensus; tissue-engineering; trachea.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Animals
  • Bioprosthesis*
  • Congresses as Topic
  • France
  • Humans
  • Tissue Engineering* / methods
  • Tissue Engineering* / trends
  • Tissue Scaffolds*
  • Trachea*
  • Tracheal Diseases / therapy*