Variability of kinematic graphomotor fluency in adults with ADHD

Hum Mov Sci. 2014 Dec:38:331-42. doi: 10.1016/j.humov.2014.07.006. Epub 2014 Nov 19.


Although graphomotor differences and variability of performance have been observed in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), no study has investigated whether this variability manifests in the kinematic graphomotor domain in adults with ADHD. Fourteen ADHD and 20 control participants wrote a novel grapheme and common word on a digitizing tablet 30 times each, with ADHD participants counterbalanced on and off stimulant medication. Variability of graphomotor fluency was significantly greater in ADHD versus control participants only in the novel writing task, both on, F(1,31)=5.988, p=.020, and off stimulant medication, F(1,32)=8.789, p=.006. Results suggest that motor control differences in ADHD are not limited to childhood and extend into adulthood. Given sufficient additional research, variability of kinematic graphomotor fluency may increase the sensitivity/specificity of differential diagnoses and/or represent a biomarker for ADHD.

Keywords: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); Handwriting; Kinematic analysis.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Amphetamines / therapeutic use
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / physiopathology*
  • Automation
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Central Nervous System Stimulants / therapeutic use
  • Dextroamphetamine / administration & dosage
  • Female
  • Handwriting*
  • Humans
  • Intelligence Tests
  • Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate
  • Male
  • Methylphenidate / administration & dosage
  • Middle Aged
  • Motor Skills / physiology*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Young Adult


  • Adderall
  • Amphetamines
  • Central Nervous System Stimulants
  • Methylphenidate
  • Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate
  • Dextroamphetamine