Anti-inflammatory activity on mice of extract of Ganoderma lucidum grown on rice via modulation of MAPK and NF-κB pathways

Phytochemistry. 2015 Jun:114:125-36. doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2014.10.019. Epub 2014 Nov 12.


Ganoderma lucidum is a popular medicinal mushroom with anti-inflammatory potential. In the present study, the aim was to determine the anti-inflammatory effect and mode of action of G. lucidum grown on germinated brown rice (GLBR) in a mouse model of colitis. It was shown that GLBR suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages and decreased the expression of COX-2, TNF-α, iNOS, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 mRNAs. GLBR also inhibited activation of p38, ERK, JNK, MAPKs, and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB). In a mouse model of colitis, colonic mucosal injury was evaluated using macroscopic, biochemical, and histopathological testing. Disease activity index (DAI), macroscopic score, and histological score significantly decreased upon GLBR treatment. Moreover, immunofluorescence studies indicated that DSS activates nuclear translocation of NF-κB in colon tissue, which is attenuated by GLBR extract. These findings suggest that GLBR is protective against colitis via inhibition of MAPK phosphorylation and NF-κB activation.

Keywords: Ganoderma lucidum; Ganodermataceae; Inflammatory bowel disease; Mitogen-activated protein kinase; Nuclear factor-kappa B; Rice.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology*
  • Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism
  • Dinoprostone / metabolism
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Interleukin-10
  • Interleukin-1beta / immunology
  • Interleukin-6 / metabolism
  • Lipopolysaccharides / pharmacology
  • Macrophages / drug effects
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism
  • NF-kappa B / metabolism
  • Nitric Oxide / metabolism
  • Oryza / microbiology*
  • Reishi / chemistry*
  • Signal Transduction / drug effects


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • IL10 protein, human
  • Interleukin-1beta
  • Interleukin-6
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • NF-kappa B
  • Interleukin-10
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Cyclooxygenase 2
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • Dinoprostone