Aims: To assess change in glycemic control concurrent with increased clinic visits, HbA1c testing, and education. Rates of complications were also examined.
Methods: A 1-2 year follow-up of 214 members of the Rwanda Life for a Child program (aged <26 years) with a first HbA1c between June 2009 and November 2010 was conducted. Data were analyzed for the entire cohort and by age (<18 years, ≥18 years). Trajectory analysis was performed to identify trends in HbA1c.
Results: Mean overall HbA1c decreased significantly from baseline (11.2 ± 2.7%; 99 ± 30 mmol/mol) to one- (10.2 ± 2.6%; 88 ± 28 mmol/mol) and two- (9.8 ± 26%; 84 ± 25 mmol/mol) year follow up visits. The prevalence of microalbuminuria did not significantly change (21.0%, 18.8%, and 19.6%), nor did nephropathy (4.7%, 7.8%, and 5.4%). However, rates of hypertension (31.8%, 44.9%, and 40.3%) were higher than expected. Five HbA1c groups were identified by trajectory analysis, and those with the worst control monitored their glucose significantly fewer times per week.
Conclusions: The establishment of regular care, HbA1c testing, and increased education is associated with significant improvements in glycemic control in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in sub-Saharan Africa, but the high prevalence of hypertension is of concern.
Keywords: Africa; Diabetes; Youth.
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