The purpose of this review is to communicate and synthesize recent findings related to motion artifact in resting state fMRI. In 2011, three groups reported that small head movements produced spurious but structured noise in brain scans, causing distance-dependent changes in signal correlations. This finding has prompted both methods development and the re-examination of prior findings with more stringent motion correction. Since 2011, over a dozen papers have been published specifically on motion artifact in resting state fMRI. We will attempt to distill these papers to their most essential content. We will point out some aspects of motion artifact that are easily or often overlooked. Throughout the review, we will highlight gaps in current knowledge and avenues for future research.
Keywords: Artifact; Denoising; Functional connectivity; Motion; Resting state; fMRI.
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