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Review
. 2015 Mar 7;140(5):1376-90.
doi: 10.1039/c4an01100g.

Review on Ion Mobility Spectrometry. Part 1: Current Instrumentation

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Free PMC article
Review

Review on Ion Mobility Spectrometry. Part 1: Current Instrumentation

R Cumeras et al. Analyst. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) is a widely used and 'well-known' technique of ion separation in the gaseous phase based on the differences in ion mobilities under an electric field. All IMS instruments operate with an electric field that provides space separation, but some IMS instruments also operate with a drift gas flow that provides also a temporal separation. In this review we will summarize the current IMS instrumentation. IMS techniques have received an increased interest as new instrumentation and have become available to be coupled with mass spectrometry (MS). For each of the eight types of IMS instruments reviewed it is mentioned whether they can be hyphenated with MS and whether they are commercially available. Finally, out of the described devices, the six most-consolidated ones are compared. The current review article is followed by a companion review article which details the IMS hyphenated techniques (mainly gas chromatography and mass spectrometry) and the factors that make the data from an IMS device change as a function of device parameters and sampling conditions. These reviews will provide the reader with an insightful view of the main characteristics and aspects of the IMS technique.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Needed elements to operate an Ion Mobility Spectrometer.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Example of a typical IMS chromatogram showing the reactant ion peak (RIP), one monomer and one dimer. Adapted with permission from . Copyright (2009) American Chemical Society.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Schematic of a conventional drift time IMS (DTIMS) system showing three ions of different size in the reaction region and then migrating at different velocities in the drift region.
Figure 4
Figure 4
(a) a schematic diagram of a stacked‐ring ion guide (SRIG) (b) an illustration of the motion of the travelling wave (T‐Wave) through the SRIG (c) an illustration of the motion of a two plate pair wide travelling wave in the SRIG. Reprinted from Ref. , Copyright (2010) with permission from Elsevier.
Figure 5
Figure 5
planar FAIMS overview. An oscillating electric field E(t) from the high level EH to the low level EL is applied perpendicular to the ions direction. Reprinted with permission from Ref. , Creative Commons Attribution.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Schematics of a TIMS device and operation. Reprinted with permission from Ref. . Copyright (2011) Springer.
Figure 7
Figure 7
Open Loop IMS ion separation principle. Reprinted from Ref. , Copyright (2010) with permission from Elsevier.
Figure 8
Figure 8
Layout of Differential Mobility Analyser (DMA). Reproduced from Ref. with permission from The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Figure 9
Figure 9
a) Schematic illustration of the TMIMS including an ESI source, an inlet electrode with an inlet slit, the deflector electrodes, the outlet electrode with the outlet slit, and the architecture of the electronics used to control the voltages of the TMIMS and to measure the output of ions. b) Different types of trajectories of ions through the TMIMS: ions with the selected mobility (top), over‐speeding ions (middle), and lagging ions (bottom). Adapted with permission from Ref. . Copyright (2012) American Chemical Society.
Figure 10
Figure 10
Schematic diagram of the drift regions of an OMS device. The first eight ion transmission (dt) and ion elimination regions (de) are shown. Also shown are the field modulation settings for OMS experiments utilizing phase conditions of Φ = 2, 3, and 4. For the two‐phase system, the blue and red traces correspond to voltage settings A and B respectively. For the three‐phase system, the blue, red, and green traces correspond with the voltage settings A, B, and C respectively. Finally, for the four‐phase system, the blue, red, green, and pink traces correspond with the voltage settings A, B, C, and D. Reprinted with permission from Ref. . Copyright (2009) Springer.

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