The roles and potential therapeutic implications of CXCL4 and its variant CXCL4L1 in the pathogenesis of chronic liver allograft dysfunction

Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2015 Feb;26(1):67-74. doi: 10.1016/j.cytogfr.2014.11.004. Epub 2014 Nov 13.


Chronic liver allograft dysfunction is the leading cause of patient morbidity and late allograft loss after liver transplantation. The pathogenesis of chronic liver allograft dysfunction remains unknown. Recent studies have demonstrated that CXCL4 and its variant CXCL4L1 are involved in organ damage induced through inflammatory and immune responses throughout all stages of liver transplantation. CXCL4 and CXCL4L1 are low-molecular-weight proteins that have been implicated in hematopoiesis, angiostasis, organ fibrogenesis, mitogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis. The purpose of this review is to discuss the current status and future developments of research into the roles of CXCL4 and CXCL4L1 in the pathogenesis of chronic liver allograft dysfunction. The potential utilization of CXCL4 and CXCL4L1 as therapeutic targets for chronic liver allograft dysfunction will also be discussed.

Keywords: CXCL4 variants; Chemokine; Chronic allograft dysfunction; Liver transplantation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Allografts
  • Humans
  • Liver Diseases / etiology
  • Liver Diseases / physiopathology*
  • Liver Diseases / therapy*
  • Liver Transplantation* / adverse effects
  • Molecular Targeted Therapy
  • Platelet Factor 4 / physiology*
  • Signal Transduction


  • PF4V1 protein, human
  • Platelet Factor 4