Objective: The aim of this study was to assess clinical relevance of long-term oral glutamine supplementation on lipid profile and inflammatory and metabolic factors in patients with diabetes.
Method: Sixty-six patients with type 2 diabetes between the ages of 18 and 65 y were randomized to receive glutamine 30 g/d (10 g powder, three times a day) or placebo, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial during a 6-wk treatment period. Fifty-three patients completed the trial. Independent samples t test and analysis of covariance were used.
Results: After a 6-wk treatment period, a significant difference was observed between the two groups in body fat mass (P = 0.01) and percentage of body fat (P = 0.008). Moreover, a significant reduction in waist circumference (P < 0.001) and a tendency for an increase in fat-free mass (P = 0.03), with no change in body weight and body mass index (BMI) was found. Enhancement in body fat-free mass was mainly attributed to trunk (P = 0.03). There was a downward trend in systolic blood pressure (P = 0.005) but not diastolic. Fasting blood glucose (mmol/L) concentration significantly decreased after the 6-wk intervention (P = 0.04). Mean hemoglobin A1c was significantly different between the groups at week 6 (P = 0.04). No significant difference was detected for fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance and quantitative insulin sensitivity index between groups (P > 0.05). No significant difference was observed between groups in total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride. No treatment effect on C-reactive protein was found (P = 0.44).
Conclusion: We demonstrated that the 6-wk supplementation with 30 g/d glutamine markedly improved some cardiovascular risk factors, as well as body composition, in patients with type 2 diabetes. Future glutamine dose-response studies are warranted in these areas.
Keywords: Body composition; GLP-1; Glutamine supplementation; Insulin; Type 2 diabetes.
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