Microalbuminuria: a parameter that has changed diabetes care

Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2015 Jan;107(1):1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2014.10.014. Epub 2014 Oct 24.

Abstract

Diabetic nephropathy is characterised by persistent albuminuria, elevated blood pressure, relentless decline in GFR and enhanced fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular diseases. Microalbuminuria has been central to the development of clinical practise in prevention and treatment of diabetic nephropathy and cardiovascular disease. Treatment-induced and spontaneous remission of microalbuminuria has been reported both in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients, underlining the importance of sustained elevation of urinary albumin excretion. Recently many new biomarkers have been evaluated in diabetic patients, and apart from urinary proteomics, none has yet outperformed Harry Keen's discovery of microalbuminuria as the best screening tool for diabetic nephropathy. Remission of microalbuminuria preserves renal function. Microalbuminuria has also stood the test of time as a valid powerful independent predictor for fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular outcome in diabetes. Improved glycaemic control, blood pressure reduction, RAS blockade and multifactorial treatment of cardiovascular risk factors reduce the risk of development of micro-and macroalbuminuria, declining renal function and cardiovascular events.

Keywords: Diabetic nephropathy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Albuminuria / blood*
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Biomarkers / urine
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / blood
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / blood*
  • Humans
  • Risk Factors

Substances

  • Biomarkers
  • Blood Glucose