Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor exerts protective and immunomodulatory effects in cortical trauma

J Neuroimmunol. 2015 Jan 15;278:162-73. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2014.11.002. Epub 2014 Nov 7.


Neurodegeneration after traumatic brain injury is facilitated by innate and adaptive immunity and can be harnessed to affect brain repair. In mice subjected to controlled cortical impact (CCI), we show that treatment with granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) affects regulatory T cell numbers in the cervical lymph nodes coincident with decreased lesion volumes and increased cortical tissue sparing. This paralleled increases in neurofilament and diminished reactive microglial staining. Transcriptomic analysis showed that GM-CSF induces robust immune neuroprotective responses seven days following CCI. Together, these results support the therapeutic potential of GM-CSF for TBI.

Keywords: Immunity; Microglia; Neuroinflammation; T cell; Traumatic brain injury.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Analysis of Variance
  • Animals
  • Brain Injuries / immunology*
  • Brain Injuries / prevention & control*
  • Cerebral Cortex / drug effects
  • Cerebral Cortex / metabolism
  • Cerebral Cortex / pathology*
  • Cytokines / genetics
  • Cytokines / metabolism*
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Functional Laterality
  • Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / therapeutic use*
  • Lymphocytes / drug effects
  • Lymphocytes / pathology
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Microarray Analysis
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism
  • Protein Interaction Maps
  • T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / drug effects*


  • Cytokines
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor