Two new lyngbyatoxin derivatives from the Cyanobacterium, Moorea producens

Mar Drugs. 2014 Dec 1;12(12):5788-800. doi: 10.3390/md12125788.


The toxin-producing cyanobacterium, Moorea producens, is a known causative organism of food poisoning and seaweed dermatitis (also known as "swimmer's itch"). Two new toxic compounds were isolated and structurally elucidated from an ethyl acetate extract of M. producens collected from Hawaii. Analyses of HR-ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopies, as well as optical rotations and CD spectra indicated two new lyngbyatoxin derivatives, 2-oxo-3(R)-hydroxy-lyngbyatoxin A (1) and 2-oxo-3(R)-hydroxy-13-N-desmethyl-lyngbyatoxin A (2). The cytotoxicity and lethal activities of 1 and 2 were approximately 10- to 150-times less potent than lyngbyatoxin A. Additionally, the binding activities of 1 and 2 possessed 10,000-times lower affinity for the protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ)-C1B peptide when compared to lyngbyatoxin A. These findings suggest that these new lyngbyatoxin derivatives may mediate their acute toxicities through a non-PKC activation pathway.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cyanobacteria / chemistry*
  • Hawaii
  • Lyngbya Toxins / chemistry*
  • Marine Toxins / chemistry
  • Protein Kinase C / chemistry


  • Lyngbya Toxins
  • Marine Toxins
  • Protein Kinase C
  • lyngbyatoxin A