Purpose: To analyze the association between macular pigment optical density (MPOD), which reflects lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z), and meso-zeaxanthin (MZ) in the macula, and background characteristics.
Methods: Fifty-five healthy adult volunteers were analyzed. Macular pigment optical density was measured using a heterochromatic flicker photometry technique, and serum concentrations of carotenoids and lipoproteins were by high-performance liquid chromatography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Dietary intake of nutrient was determined by a validated self-administered questionnaire on ingestion frequency.
Results: Macular pigment optical density was positively correlated with serum concentrations of L and Z and dietary L intake and inversely correlated with serum oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Although MPOD decreased with age (95% confidence interval, -0.011 to -0.002; correlation coefficient, -0.269; P = 0.007), serum L/Z and dietary L intake did not. In contrast, serum oxidized LDL was positively correlated with age (95% confidence interval, 0.69-2.34; correlation coefficient, 0.333; P = 0.0004). After adjusting for age, sex, and oxidized LDL, serum L was positively correlated with MPOD (95% confidence interval, 0.88-1.69; P = 0.000001). After adjusting for age, sex, and serum L, serum oxidized LDL was inversely correlated with MPOD (95% confidence interval, -0.002 to -0.0004; P = 0.006).
Conclusion: Macular pigment optical density was inversely correlated with serum oxidized LDL. Further study to know the impact of oxidized LDL on MPOD may be warranted.