4D flow MRI applications for aortic disease

Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2015 Feb;23(1):15-23. doi: 10.1016/j.mric.2014.08.006. Epub 2014 Oct 5.


Aortic disease is routinely monitored with anatomic imaging, but until the recent advent of 3-directional phase contrast MRI (4D) flow, blood flow abnormalities have gone undetected. 4D flow measures aortic hemodynamic markers quickly. Qualitative flow visualization has spurred the investigation of new quantitative markers. Flow displacement and wall shear stress can quantify the effects of valve-related aortic flow abnormalities. Markers of turbulent and viscous energy loss approximate the increased energetic burden on the ventricle in disease states. This article discusses magnetic resonance flow imaging and highlights new flow-related markers in the context of aortic valve disease, valve-related aortic disease, and aortic wall disease.

Keywords: 4D flow; Aorta; Aortic aneurysm; Bicuspid aortic valve; Flow imaging; Hemodynamic imaging; Phase contrast MRI.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aorta / pathology
  • Aorta / physiopathology*
  • Aortic Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Aortic Diseases / physiopathology*
  • Aortic Valve / physiopathology
  • Bicuspid Aortic Valve Disease
  • Blood Flow Velocity
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / diagnosis*
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / physiopathology*
  • Heart Valve Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Heart Valve Diseases / physiopathology*
  • Image Enhancement / methods
  • Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods*
  • Magnetic Resonance Angiography / methods*
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine / methods