Objective: To determine whether maternal exposure to particulate matter (PM₂.₅) speciation chemicals during pregnancy is associated with the risk of preeclampsia.
Methods: We allocated average daily exposure values for 36 ambient particulate matter speciation chemicals to mothers during their first trimester and their entire pregnancy. The main outcome of interest was preeclampsia occurrence. Adjusted odd ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed.
Results: The odds for preeclampsia were increased per interquartile range increase in pollutants for exposure to elemental carbon during the first trimester of pregnancy (odds ratio = 1.08; confidence interval = 1.01 to 1.16) and during the entire pregnancy period (odds ratio = 1.05; confidence interval = 1.01 to 1.11). The most substantial risk for preeclampsia was observed for PM2.5 aluminum exposure during the entire pregnancy, resulting in 10% increased risk (odds ratio = 1.10; confidence interval = 1.03 to 1.18) per interquartile range increase in aluminum.
Conclusions: Maternal exposure to PM2.5, aluminum, and elemental carbon during pregnancy increases the risk of preeclampsia.