Interaction of a dietary fiber (pectin) with gastrointestinal components (bile salts, calcium, and lipase): a calorimetry, electrophoresis, and turbidity study

J Agric Food Chem. 2014 Dec 31;62(52):12620-30. doi: 10.1021/jf504829h. Epub 2014 Dec 17.


An in vitro gastrointestinal model consisting of oral, gastric, and intestinal phases was used to elucidate the impact of pectin on the digestion of emulsified lipids. Pectin reduced the extent of lipid digestion, which was attributed to its binding interactions with specific gastrointestinal components. The interaction of pectin with bile salts, lipase, CaCl2, and NaCl was therefore investigated by turbidity, microstructure, electrophoresis, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) at pH 7.0 and 37 °C. ITC showed that the interaction of pectin was endothermic with bile salts, but exothermic with CaCl2, NaCl, and lipase. Electrophoresis, microstructure, and turbidity measurements showed that anionic pectin formed electrostatic complexes with calcium ions, which may have decreased lipid digestion due to increased lipid flocculation or microgel formation because this would reduce the surface area of lipid exposed to the lipase. This research provides valuable insights into the physicochemical and molecular mechanisms of the interaction of pectin with gastrointestinal components that may affect the rate and extent of lipid digestion.

Keywords: flocculation; gastrointestinal tract; isothermal titration calorimetry; lipid digestion; pectin; turbidity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Bile Acids and Salts / chemistry
  • Bile Acids and Salts / metabolism*
  • Calcium / chemistry
  • Calcium / metabolism*
  • Calorimetry
  • Dietary Fiber / analysis
  • Dietary Fiber / metabolism*
  • Digestion*
  • Electrophoresis
  • Gastrointestinal Tract / chemistry
  • Gastrointestinal Tract / enzymology
  • Gastrointestinal Tract / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Lipase / chemistry
  • Lipase / metabolism*
  • Lipid Metabolism
  • Lipids / chemistry
  • Models, Biological
  • Pectins / chemistry
  • Pectins / metabolism*


  • Bile Acids and Salts
  • Dietary Fiber
  • Lipids
  • Pectins
  • Lipase
  • Calcium