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. 2014 Dec 3;14(12):23041-66.
doi: 10.3390/s141223041.

Study of the Algorithm of Backtracking Decoupling and Adaptive Extended Kalman Filter Based on the Quaternion Expanded to the State Variable for Underwater Glider Navigation

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Free PMC article

Study of the Algorithm of Backtracking Decoupling and Adaptive Extended Kalman Filter Based on the Quaternion Expanded to the State Variable for Underwater Glider Navigation

Haoqian Huang et al. Sensors (Basel). .
Free PMC article

Abstract

High accuracy attitude and position determination is very important for underwater gliders. The cross-coupling among three attitude angles (heading angle, pitch angle and roll angle) becomes more serious when pitch or roll motion occurs. This cross-coupling makes attitude angles inaccurate or even erroneous. Therefore, the high accuracy attitude and position determination becomes a difficult problem for a practical underwater glider. To solve this problem, this paper proposes backing decoupling and adaptive extended Kalman filter (EKF) based on the quaternion expanded to the state variable (BD-AEKF). The backtracking decoupling can eliminate effectively the cross-coupling among the three attitudes when pitch or roll motion occurs. After decoupling, the adaptive extended Kalman filter (AEKF) based on quaternion expanded to the state variable further smoothes the filtering output to improve the accuracy and stability of attitude and position determination. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed BD-AEKF method, the pitch and roll motion are simulated and the proposed method performance is analyzed and compared with the traditional method. Simulation results demonstrate the proposed BD-AEKF performs better. Furthermore, for further verification, a new underwater navigation system is designed, and the three-axis non-magnetic turn table experiments and the vehicle experiments are done. The results show that the proposed BD-AEKF is effective in eliminating cross-coupling and reducing the errors compared with the conventional method.

Figures

Figure 1.
Figure 1.
The underwater glider model.
Figure 2.
Figure 2.
The attitude error and position error for EKF and BD-AEKF when the pitch changes in the sine form. (a) Heading (b) Pitch (c) Roll (d) East position (e) North position.
Figure 3.
Figure 3.
The attitude error and position error for EKF and BD-AEKF when the roll changes in the sine form. (a) Heading (b) Pitch (c) Roll (d) East position (e) North position.
Figure 4.
Figure 4.
The vehicle experiment platform.
Figure 5.
Figure 5.
The trajectory of the real experiment (Line).
Figure 6.
Figure 6.
The errors for EKF and BD-AEKF in the line trajectory. (a) Heading (b) Pitch (c) Roll (d) East position (e) North position.
Figure 7.
Figure 7.
The trajectory of the real experiment (rectangle).
Figure 8.
Figure 8.
The errors for EKF and BD-AEKF in the rectangle trajectory. (a) Heading (b) Pitch (c) Roll (d) East position (e) North position.

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