Immunomodulatory properties of Streptococcus and Veillonella isolates from the human small intestine microbiota

PLoS One. 2014 Dec 5;9(12):e114277. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0114277. eCollection 2014.

Abstract

The human small intestine is a key site for interactions between the intestinal microbiota and the mucosal immune system. Here we investigated the immunomodulatory properties of representative species of commonly dominant small-intestinal microbial communities, including six streptococcal strains (four Streptococcus salivarius, one S. equinus, one S. parasanguinis) one Veillonella parvula strain, one Enterococcus gallinarum strain, and Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 as a bench mark strain on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. The different streptococci induced varying levels of the cytokines IL-8, TNF-α, and IL-12p70, while the V. parvula strain showed a strong capacity to induce IL-6. E. gallinarum strain was a potent inducer of cytokines and TLR2/6 signalling. As Streptococcus and Veillonella can potentially interact metabolically and frequently co-occur in ecosystems, immunomodulation by pair-wise combinations of strains were also tested for their combined immunomodulatory properties. Strain combinations induced cytokine responses in dendritic cells that differed from what might be expected on the basis of the results obtained with the individual strains. A combination of (some) streptococci with Veillonella appeared to negate IL-12p70 production, while augmenting IL-8, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α responses. This suggests that immunomodulation data obtained in vitro with individual strains are unlikely to adequately represent immune responses to mixtures of gut microbiota communities in vivo. Nevertheless, analysing the immune responses of strains representing the dominant species in the intestine may help to identify immunomodulatory mechanisms that influence immune homeostasis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Dendritic Cells / immunology
  • Dendritic Cells / microbiology
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Cellular / genetics
  • Immunomodulation / genetics*
  • Interleukin-10 / genetics
  • Interleukin-10 / immunology
  • Interleukin-12 / genetics
  • Interleukin-12 / immunology
  • Interleukin-8 / genetics
  • Interleukin-8 / immunology
  • Intestine, Small / immunology*
  • Intestine, Small / metabolism
  • Intestine, Small / microbiology
  • Leukocytes, Mononuclear / immunology
  • Leukocytes, Mononuclear / microbiology
  • Microbiota / genetics
  • Microbiota / immunology
  • Streptococcus / immunology*
  • Streptococcus / pathogenicity
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / genetics
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / immunology
  • Veillonella / immunology*
  • Veillonella / pathogenicity

Substances

  • IL10 protein, human
  • Interleukin-8
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Interleukin-10
  • Interleukin-12

Grant support

This work was supported by a project from the Top Institute Food and Nutrition, Wageningen, The Netherlands and by The Netherlands Bioinformatics Centre (NBIC). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.