The virulence of three isolates of simian immunodeficiency virus from African green monkeys (SIVagm) was studied in rhesus and pigtailed macaques. None of 15 rhesus monkeys and one of four pigtailed monkeys died from infection during the time they were studied (up to 33 months). SIVagm was only isolated from rhesus monkeys for up to 2 months after inoculation. However, when these animals were secondarily infected with Simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome retrovirus type 1 (SRV-1), SIVagm was activated and isolated. Dual infection caused increased mortality.