Consensus guidelines for the treatment of invasive mould infections in haematological malignancy and haemopoietic stem cell transplantation, 2014

Intern Med J. 2014 Dec;44(12b):1333-49. doi: 10.1111/imj.12598.


Mould species represent the pathogens most commonly associated with invasive fungal disease in patients with haematological malignancies and patients of haemopoietic stem cell transplants. Invasive mould infections in these patient populations, particularly in the setting of neutropenia, are associated with high morbidity and mortality, and significantly increase the complexity of management. While Aspergillus species remain the most prevalent cause of invasive mould infections, Scedosporium and Fusarium species and the Mucormycetes continue to place a significant burden on the immunocompromised host. Evidence also suggests that infections caused by rare and emerging pathogens are increasing within the setting of broad-spectrum antifungal prophylaxis and improved survival times placing immunosuppressed patients at risk for longer. These guidelines present evidence-based recommendations for the antifungal management of common, rare and emerging mould infections in both adult and paediatric populations. Where relevant, the role of surgery, adjunctive therapy and immunotherapy is also discussed.

Keywords: antifungal therapy; aspergillosis; emerging fungal infection; invasive mould disease; mucormycosis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antifungal Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Aspergillosis / drug therapy
  • Aspergillosis / immunology
  • Aspergillosis / prevention & control
  • Consensus
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Drug Resistance, Fungal
  • Evidence-Based Medicine
  • Fusariosis / drug therapy
  • Fusariosis / immunology
  • Fusariosis / prevention & control
  • Hematologic Neoplasms / complications
  • Hematologic Neoplasms / immunology*
  • Hematologic Neoplasms / therapy
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation*
  • Humans
  • Immunocompromised Host / immunology
  • Neutropenia / immunology
  • Opportunistic Infections / microbiology*
  • Opportunistic Infections / prevention & control
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis*


  • Antifungal Agents