The in-hospital mortality rate for upper GI hemorrhage has decreased over 2 decades in the United States: a nationwide analysis

Gastrointest Endosc. 2015 Apr;81(4):882-8.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.gie.2014.09.027. Epub 2014 Dec 5.


Background: Despite major advances in upper GI hemorrhage (UGIH) treatment, UGIH mortality has been reported as unchanged for the past 50 years.

Objective: To measure the UGIH in-hospital mortality rate and other important outcome trends from 1989 to 2009.

Design: A longitudinal study of UGIH hospitalizations by using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample.

Setting: Acute-care hospitals.

Patients: All patients admitted for UGIH. Patients who bled after admission were excluded.

Main outcome measurements: UGIH in-hospital mortality rate, incidence, in-hospital endoscopy and endoscopic therapy rates, length of hospital stay, and total in-hospital charges.

Results: The non-variceal UGIH mortality rate decreased from 4.5% in 1989 to 2.1% in 2009. The non-variceal UGIH incidence declined from 108 to 78 cases/100,000 persons in 1994 and 2009, respectively. In-hospital upper endoscopy and endoscopic therapy rates increased from 70% and 10% in 1989 to 85% and 27% in 2009, respectively. The early endoscopy rate increased from 36% in 1989 to 54% in 2009. The median length of hospital stay decreased from 4.5 days in 1989 to 2.8 days in 2009. Median total hospitalization charges increased from $9249 in 1989 to $20,370 in 2009. At the national level, the UGIH direct in-hospital economic burden increased from $3.3 billion in 1989 to $7.6 billion in 2009. Similar trends were found for variceal UGIH.

Limitations: Retrospective data, administrative database.

Conclusion: In-hospital mortality from UGIH has been decreasing over the past 2 decades, with a concomitant increase in rate of endoscopy and endoscopic therapy. However, despite decreasing length of stay, the total economic burden of UGIH is increasing.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Databases, Factual
  • Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal / trends
  • Female
  • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / economics
  • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / epidemiology
  • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / mortality*
  • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / therapy*
  • Hemostasis, Endoscopic / trends*
  • Hospital Charges / trends
  • Hospital Mortality / trends*
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Length of Stay / trends
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Retrospective Studies
  • United States / epidemiology