Outlaw, JJ, Smith-Ryan, AE, Buckley, AL, Urbina, SL, Hayward, S, Wingfield, HL, Campbell, B, Foster, C, Taylor, LW, and Wilborn, CD. Effects of β-alanine on body composition and performance measures in collegiate women. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2627-2637, 2016-The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of β-alanine (BA) supplementation and resistance training on body composition and performance. In a double-blind placebo-controlled design, 16 untrained collegiate females (mean ± SD: 21.0 ± 2.2 years; 64.8 ± 8.5 kg; 164.5 ± 7.0 cm; 30.1 ± 5.1 percent body fat [%BF]) completed 8 weeks of resistance training while consuming either 3.4 g BA or placebo (PL; 5 g maltodextrin) before training sessions. Training consisted of 4 days per week upper- and lower-body exercises. Lean body mass (LBM), fat mass (FM), and %BF were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Maximal oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), aerobic time to exhaustion, Wingate peak power, bench press and leg press 1RM (BPmax; LPmax), and repetitions at 65% (BPreps; LPreps), vertical jump (VJ), and standing broad jump were assessed using standard National Strength and Conditioning Association guidelines. All measurements were taken at baseline (T1), 4 weeks (T2), and 8 weeks (T3). Repeated-measures analysis of variance and 95% confidence intervals were used to determine significance. Body composition (LBM, FM, and %BF) improved over time (p < 0.01) for both groups. Maximal strength and VJ increased significantly from baseline to T3 (p ≤ 0.05). There was a significant interaction for LPreps (p = 0.040), with only BA group resulting in significantly greater LPreps (p = 0.041) at T2 and T3. Results from this study suggest that 8 weeks, 4 days per week progressive resistance training and BA supplementation may be effective for improving lower-body muscular endurance. β-alanine had no additive effects on body composition or maximal strength in collegiate women.