Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
. 2015 Mar;114(3):406-13.
doi: 10.1093/bja/aeu377. Epub 2014 Dec 8.

Non-invasive Measurement of Cardiac Output Using an Iterative, Respiration-Based Method

Free article

Non-invasive Measurement of Cardiac Output Using an Iterative, Respiration-Based Method

M Klein et al. Br J Anaesth. .
Free article


Background: Current non-invasive respiratory-based methods of measuring cardiac output [Formula: see text] make doubtful assumptions and encounter significant technical difficulties. We present a new method using an iterative approach [Formula: see text], which overcomes limitations of previous methods.

Methods: Sequential gas delivery (SGD) is used to control alveolar ventilation [Formula: see text] and CO2 elimination [Formula: see text] during a continuous series of iterative tests. Each test consists of four breaths where inspired CO2 [Formula: see text] is controlled; raising end-tidal Pco2 [Formula: see text] by about 1.33 kPa (10 mm Hg) for the first breath, and then maintaining [Formula: see text] constant for the next three breaths. The [Formula: see text] required to maintain [Formula: see text] constant is calculated using the differential Fick equation (DFE), where [Formula: see text] is the only unknown and is arbitrarily assumed for the first iteration. Each subsequent iteration generates measures used for calculating [Formula: see text] by the DFE, refining the assumption of [Formula: see text] for the next test and converging it to the true [Formula: see text] when [Formula: see text] remains constant during the four test breaths. We compared [Formula: see text] with [Formula: see text] measured by bolus pulmonary artery thermodilution [Formula: see text] in seven pigs undergoing liver transplantation.

Results: [Formula: see text] implementation and analysis was fully automated, and [Formula: see text] varied from 0.6 to 5.4 litre min(-1) through the experiments. The bias (between [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]) was 0.2 litre min(-1) with 95% limit of agreement from -1.1 to 0.7 litre min(-1) and percentage of error of 32%. During acute changes of [Formula: see text], convergence of [Formula: see text] to actual [Formula: see text] required only three subsequent iterations.

Conclusions: [Formula: see text] measurement is capable of providing an automated semi-continuous non-invasive measure of [Formula: see text].

Keywords: carbon dioxide; cardiac output; monitoring; respiration.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 3 articles

Publication types

LinkOut - more resources