Can the ream and run procedure improve glenohumeral relationships and function for shoulders with the arthritic triad?

Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2015 Jun;473(6):2088-96. doi: 10.1007/s11999-014-4095-7. Epub 2014 Dec 9.

Abstract

Background: The arthritic triad of glenoid biconcavity, glenoid retroversion, and posterior displacement of the humeral head on the glenoid is associated with an increased risk of failure of total shoulder joint replacement. Although a number of glenohumeral arthroplasty techniques are being used to manage this complex pathology, problems with glenoid component failure remain. In that the ream and run procedure manages arthritic pathoanatomy without a glenoid component, we sought evidence that this procedure can be effective in improving the centering of the humeral head contact on the glenoid and in improving the comfort and function of shoulders with the arthritic triad without the risk of glenoid component failure.

Questions/purposes: We asked, for shoulders with the arthritic triad, whether the ream and run procedure could improve glenohumeral relationships as measured on standardized axillary radiographs and patient-reported shoulder comfort and function as recorded by the Simple Shoulder Test.

Methods: Between January 1, 2006 and December 14, 2011, we performed 531 primary anatomic glenohumeral arthroplasties for arthritis, of which 221 (42%) were ream and run procedures. Of these, 30 shoulders in 30 patients had the ream and run procedure for the arthritic triad and had two years of clinical and radiographic follow-up. These 30 shoulders formed the basis for this case series. The average age of the patients was 56 ± 8 years; all but one were male. Two of the 30 patients requested revision to total shoulder arthroplasty within the first year after their ream and run procedure because of their dissatisfaction with their rehabilitation progress. For the 28 shoulders not having had a revision, we determined on the standardized axillary views before and after surgery the glenoid type, glenoid version (90° minus the angle between the plane of the glenoid face and the plane of the body of the scapula), and location of the humeral contact point with respect to the anteroposterio dimension of the glenoid (the ratio of the distance from the anterior glenoid lip to the contact point divided by the distance between the anterior and posterior glenoid lips). We also recorded the patient's self-assessed shoulder comfort and function before and after surgery using the 12 questions of the Simple Shoulder Test.

Results: For the 28 unrevised shoulders the mean followup was 3.0 years (range, 2-9.2 years). In these patients, the ream and run procedure resulted in improved centering of the humeral head on the face of the glenoid (preoperative: 75% ± 7% posterior; postoperative: 59% ± 10% posterior; mean difference 16% [95% CI, 13%-19%]; p < 0.001), notably this improved centering was achieved without a significant change in the glenoid version. Patient-reported function was improved (preoperative Simple Shoulder Test: 5 ± 3, postoperative Simple Shoulder Test: 10 ± 4, mean difference 5 [95% CI, 4-6], p < 0.001).

Conclusions: For shoulders with the arthritic triad, the ream and run procedure can provide improvement in humeral centering on the glenoid and in patient-reported shoulder comfort and function without the risk of glenoid component failure. In that ream and run is a new procedure, substantial additional clinical research with long-term follow-up is needed to define specifically the shoulder characteristics, the patient characteristics and the technical details that are most likely to lead to durable improvements in the comfort and function of shoulders with the challenging pathology known as the arthritic triad.

Level of evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study.

MeSH terms

  • Arthroplasty, Replacement / adverse effects
  • Arthroplasty, Replacement / instrumentation
  • Arthroplasty, Replacement / methods*
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Disability Evaluation
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Joint Prosthesis
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Osteoarthritis / diagnosis
  • Osteoarthritis / physiopathology
  • Osteoarthritis / surgery*
  • Prosthesis Design
  • Radiography
  • Range of Motion, Articular
  • Recovery of Function
  • Shoulder Joint / diagnostic imaging
  • Shoulder Joint / physiopathology
  • Shoulder Joint / surgery*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome