A Description of Biremis panamae sp. nov., a New Diatom Species from the Marine Littoral, with an Account of the Phylogenetic Position of Biremis D.G. Mann et E.J. Cox (Bacillariophyceae)

PLoS One. 2014 Dec 10;9(12):e114508. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0114508. eCollection 2014.


Here we present a formal description of Biremis panamae Barka, Witkowski et Weisenborn sp. nov., which was isolated from the marine littoral environment of the Pacific Ocean coast of Panama. The description is based on morphology (light and electron microscopy) and the rbcL, psbC and SSU sequences of one clone of this species. The new species is included in Biremis due to its morphological features; i.e. two marginal rows of foramina, chambered striae, and girdle composed of numerous punctate copulae. The new species also possesses a striated valve face which is not seen in most known representatives of marine littoral Biremis species. In this study we also present the relationship of Biremis to other taxa using morphology, DNA sequence data and observations of auxosporulation. Our results based on these three sources point to an evolutionary relationship between Biremis, Neidium and Scoliopleura. The unusual silicified incunabular caps present in them are known otherwise only in Muelleria, which is probably related to the Neidiaceae and Scoliotropidaceae. We also discuss the relationship between Biremis and the recently described Labellicula and Olifantiella.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Base Sequence
  • Chloroplasts / physiology
  • Diatoms / classification*
  • Diatoms / genetics
  • Diatoms / isolation & purification*
  • Pacific Ocean
  • Panama
  • Photosystem II Protein Complex / genetics
  • Phylogeny
  • Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase / genetics
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA


  • Photosystem II Protein Complex
  • Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase

Grants and funding

AW and CL received support from grant No. 2012/04/A/ST10/00544 from the National Science Centre in Cracow, programme Maestro (http://www.ncn.gov.pl/?language=en). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.